Other Sweeteners

Aspartame is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in foods and beverages. It is codified as E951 in EU. Aspartame is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid. The safety of aspartame has been the subject of several political and medical controversies, United States congressional hearings and Internet hoaxes since its initial approval for use in food products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1981. The European Food Safety Authority concluded in its 2013 re-evaluation that aspartame and its breakdown products are safe for human consumption at current levels of exposure, corroborating other medical reviews. However, because its breakdown products include phenylalanine, aspartame must be avoided by people with the genetic condition phenylketonuria (PKU).

Stevia is a sweetener and sugar substitute extracted from the leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana. The active compounds of stevia are up to 150 times the sweetness of sugar, and are heat-stable, pH-stable, and not fermentable. These steviosides have a negligible effect on blood glucose, which makes stevia attractive to people on carbohydrate-controlled diets. Stevia's taste has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar and some of its extracts may have a bitter or licorice-like aftertaste at high concentrations. The legal status of stevia extracts as food additives and supplements varies from country to country.

Sucralose is a non-nutritive sweetener. The majority of ingested sucralose is not broken down by the body, so it is noncaloric. Sucralose is about 320 to 1,000 times as sweet as sugar, twice as sweet as saccharin, and three times as sweet as aspartame. It is stable under heat and over a broad range of pH conditions. Therefore, it can be used in baking or in products that require a longer shelf life. The commercial success of sucralose-based products stems from its favorable comparison to other low-calorie sweeteners in terms of taste, stability, and safety. 

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